【发布时间:2017-03-21】 【作者:/来源:】【关闭窗口】


1. 不定式的复合结构


一般说来,不定式动作的执行者为句子的主语,但有时不定式的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,这时必须使用不定式的复合结构:for/of + 名词/代词 + to do”,这一结构在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语或状语等。

如:For him to get there on time is possible.   I found it hard for them to finish the work in such a short time.   Their hope is for Mary to live with them.   There will be a lot of difficulties for them to overcome.   The poem is too hard for me to understand.

2)、“It is + 形容词 + for/of sb. to do sth.”结构中forof的判定


如:It is kind of you to do it.     It is easy for him to do it.    

2. 动名词的复合结构


动名词的复合结构为“名词所有格(n's/形容词性物主代词(one's+ doing...”,动名词的逻辑主语是名词所有格或名词性物主代词,这一结构在句中可以作主语或宾语。如:Mary's coming late made her parents angry.   Would you mind my opening the window


如:He thought of passenger'swaiting for help.  He insisted on me/my going to help her.   I know nothing about the window being open.     Haven’t you forgotten Mary and her mother doing everything to help you out when you were in trouble

3. 分词的独立主格结构



分词的独立主格结构为名词(普通格)/代词(主格)+ doing/done”,常常在句中作状语(常用逗号与句子隔开)。

如:The meeting being overwe all left the room.   Weather permittingthey will go and visit the zoo.     So many friends being absentwe decided to put off the party.      She looked at her fathertears rolling down her cheeks.   He lay on his backhis hands crossed under his head.

注意:独立主格结构不仅仅只有分词的独立主格结构,还包括由不定式、形容词、副词或介词构成的独立主格结构。如:The exam to be held tomorrowI could not go to the cinema tonight.   He entered the roomhis nose red with cold.   He put on his socks wrong side out.   Peter was sitting near the firehis back towards the door.



1)在动词hope, want, plan, expect, intend, mean, promise, wish的过去式之后用不定式的完成式作宾语,表示本来希望或打算做而未做的事,常可以与had + 这些动词ed + to do结构互换。

如:I hoped to have met you at the airport, but I was too busy. = I had hoped to meet you at the airport, but I was too busy.

  I intended to have called on you.= I had intended to call on you. 我原想来拜访你的。  



  The teacher made no comments except to tell him to work hard. 老师除了叫他努力学习外,未做任何评价。

  He had no choice but to sit there as usual.  他没有什么选择,只好像往常一样坐在那儿。



I have done nothing except eat and sleep this week.

I couldn't do anything but wait here.


do nothing but 只能

cannot but禁不住……

do anything but决不

cannot choose but只得……

cannot help but不得不


His father could do nothing but wait for the doctor to arrive.

We would do anything but confess(承认)our guilty.我们决不承认有罪。

She couldn't help but laugh at his clothes.她情不自禁地大笑他的着装。

I cannot but admire(钦佩) his courage.

I could not choose but love her.我不禁爱上了她。



    ①句子的主语是不定式的逻辑主语。这类形容词有able, afraid, angry, anxious, careful, clever, content, cruel, determined, disappointed, eager, foolish, fortunate, frightened, happy, impatient, glad, lucky, naughty, prepared, proud, ready, slow, shocked, sorry, surprised, willing等。

    I am sorry to say that he is going from bad to worse.  很遗憾,他的情况每况愈下

    She was not content to live a quiet life in a small town. 她不满足在一个小镇里过默默无闻的生活。

    John was happy to be given the job. 约翰得到这份工作很高兴。

    ②句子的主语是不定式的逻辑宾语。这类形容词有easy, hard, cheap, expensive, dangerous, difficult, funny, fit, impossible, interesting, nice, pleasant, simple, strange, useful等。

    This problem is easy to solve. 这个问题很容易解决。

    The water is not fit to drink. 这水不适于饮用。

    She is hard to get along with. 她这个人很难相处。


    The river is dangerous to swim in. 在这条河里游泳很危险。

    A spring mattress is comfortable to sleep on. 席梦思床垫睡上去很舒服。

2. 不定式的几种常见结构

 1be + 不定式结构

  “be + 不定式”结构可以表示将来发生的动作,常有以下两种情况:


  The room is to be locked. 这房间要上锁。

  You are not to stand here. 你不能站在这里。


  We are to begin the work next month. 我们安排下一个月开始这项工作。

  What's to be done next 下一步该怎么办?

  2)疑问词 + 不定式结构

  疑问词who, what, which, when, where, how, why后加动词不定式构成不定式短语,它在句中可作主语、宾语和表语。

  I don't know whether to go to the meeting or not. 我不知道要不要去开会。

  The problem was how to get rid of the waste thrown by the passengers. 问题是如何处理乘客们丢弃的垃圾。

  When to visit the Palace Museum has not been decided yet. 何时参观故宫博物院还没有决定。


  动词不定式to do通常是不拆开的,但偶尔也可在不定式符号to和动词原形之间插入一个副词,构成分裂不定式。

  He was too ill to completely carry out that program. 他病得太重,不能完成那个项目。

  He has made up his mind to once more try this method.  他已经下定决心再试试这个方法。



  To be honest, we are not sure to find the girl in the forest. 说老实话,我们不能确保在森林里能找到那个女孩。

  To be frank, I don't agree with what you said.   坦率地说,我不同意你说的话。


  to tell you the truth 说老实话,to be frank 坦率地说,to begin with 首先,to be brief 简言之,to make a long story short 长话短说,to make matters worse 使事情更为糟糕的是, to be exact 精确地说,to say nothing of 姑且不说,to conclude 总而言之,to be sure 诚然,固然,to do him justice 说句对他公道的话,so to speak 可以这么说 

3. 不定式主被动形式



  Do you have anything to say on this question 针对这个问题你有什么要说的吗?

  He is a pleasant person to work with. 他是一个与其合作起来令人感到愉快的人。


  The book is difficult to understand. 这本书很难理解。

  The chair is comfortable to sit on. 这把椅子坐起来很舒服。

  3There be结构中,当说话人考虑必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式;如果表示事情本身必须完成时,不定式用被动形式。

  There are 20 more trees to plant. 还要栽20多棵树。(强调必须有人去做)

  There are 20 more trees to be planted. 还有20多棵树要栽。(强调任务必须完成)

  There is a lot of work to do. 有许多事情要做。(表示某人必须做这工作)

  There is a lot of work to be done. 有许多事情要做。(强调有许多事情必须做)



Have you any clothes to wash? 你有衣服要洗么?(你自己洗)

Have you any clothes to be washed? 你有衣服要洗么?(拿我给你洗)

注意:形容词easy, difficult, hard, cheap, expensive, fit, comfortable, heavy, good等形容词后面接不定式作状语时,常用主动形式表示被动意义。

English is easy to learn.英语容易学。

The book is very hard to understand.这本书很难理解。

4. 不定式的省略


  ①、在口语中,动词原形come go后可接不带to的不定式。

  Go tell her. 去告诉她吧。

  Come have a glass. 来喝一杯。


  Why make so much noise   为什么发出这么大的噪音?

  Why not join us   为什么不加入我们?

  ③、had better, had best, would rather, would rather...than, would sooner, would sooner...than, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but等结构后直接跟动词原形或not +动词原形。在以下固定结构中也常常省去to,如:leave go 放开,make do 凑合,hear tell/say 听说,let drop/fall 故意说出,let fly 放飞、发射、对……大发脾气,let go 放开,go hang 不管,make believe 假装等

  You'd better listen to your teacher's opinion.   你最好听一听老师的意见。

  We had best call for the doctor at once. 我们最好马上就请医生来。

  She can't do anything but ask silly questions. 她一直在问一些愚蠢的问题。

  Rather than ride on a crowded bus, he always prefers to ride a bicycle. 他宁愿骑自行车,也不愿挤公共汽车。

  He cannot but move to another street, because his building has to be pulled down soon. 他不得不搬到另一条街上去,因为他住的大楼很快就要被推倒。

  We cannot help but admire his courage.  我们情不自禁地钦佩他的勇气

  ④、如不定式前有行为动词do,那么在表语从句中的不定式和介词exceptbut/other than之后的不定式可不带to

  The only thing I could do was go home. 我能做的唯一一件事就是回家。

  They could do nothing but/other than wait for the doctor to come. 他们只能等待医生的到来。


  The little girl hardly knew whether to laugh or cry. 这小姑娘不知道是哭好还是笑好。 

  Can you help me to call him and ask him to attend the meeting at 200 p.m. 你能不能帮我打电话给他,叫他下午两点来开会?

⑥、在感官动词see, hear, watch, feel, notice以及使役动词make, let, have等后作宾语补足语的动词不定式不带to(变成被动语态时必须带to)。

  She watched the children cross the street. 她看着孩子们穿过了马路。

  They made the boy apologize to his friend for being so rude. 他们让那男孩因他的粗鲁而向他的朋友道歉。

  Don't forget to have him come earlier. 别忘了让他早点儿来。



  ①、在助动词或情态动词之后,如be going to, used to, have to, ought to, be able to, be about to等。

  She must go but you don't have to.  她必须走,但你没有必要。

  ---Do you think I ought to go to see my doctor  你认为我应该去看医生吗?

  ---Yes, I think you ought to.  是的,我想你应该去。

  ②、在want, decide,wouldlike, love, hope, wish, mean, refuse, try等动词之后。

  You may go with them if you hope to.  如果你希望的话,你可以和他们一起去。

  ---Did you go to see the Great Wall  你游览长城了吗?

  ---I wanted to, but I was too busy.  我本来想去的,但我太忙了。

  ③、在做宾语补足语的ask, tell, order, advise, persuade, warn, wish, permit, allow, forbid等动词之后。

  Don't do anything unless your father tells you to.  除非你父亲叫你去做,不然不要做任何事情。

  ---May I use your car   我可以用你的汽车吗?

  ---No, I forbid you to.   不,我禁止你使用。

  ④、在对话的答语中的happy, glad, eager, anxious, willing, ready, pleased, afraid等形容词之后。

  ---Will you lend me a hand   你能帮我一个忙吗?

  ---I'm willing to, but I can't now.   我很愿意,但现在不行。

  ---Would you please come to my birthday party tomorrow 明天下午来参加我的生日聚会好吗?

  ---I'll be glad to. 我很乐意。


  如果动词不定式是to beto have,则一般不省。

  --- Did you finish the work 你的工作完成了吗?

  --- No, but I hoped to have. 没有,但我希望已经完成了。

  5. 不定式符号to和介词to



  He made it a rule to read English aloud for half an hour every morning. 他坚持每天早晨朗读半小时英语。

  These young lads are longing to go to watch the football match. 这几个小伙子极想去看足球赛。


  be supposed to do应该做某事,be determined to do 决心要做某事,fail to do 未能做某事,go all out to do 全力以赴做某事 have the nerve to do 有胆量做某事,have a great mind to do 很想做某事,make a point to do 坚持做某事,make up one's mind to do 决定做某事,take the trouble to do 不辞辛苦地做某事,prepare oneself to do 有思想准备做某事


  If you stick to the truth, you will have nothing to fear. 如果你坚持真理,就没有什么可害怕的。

  You must get used to getting up early. 你必须习惯早起。

  Isn't it time you got down to marking those papers 难道还没到你定下心来阅卷的时间吗?


  be used to 习惯,be equal to 胜任,be given to 沉溺于,be opposed to 反对,be related to……有关,devote oneself to 献身于,get down to 着手做,give rise to 引起,lead to 导致,look forward to 盼望,object to 反对,pay attention to 注意,put one's mind to 全神贯注于,stick to 坚持,make contribution to……做贡献,adjust to/adapt to 适应, be addicted to沉迷于

6. 下列结构中常用不定式作主语补足语:

Sb be said/reported/believed/found/known/considered/thought + to do/to be done/to have done/to have been done

如:He is said to have gone abroad. = It is said that he has gone abroad.

Heat is considered to be a form of energy.



(1) want/need/require doing = want/need/require to be done

(2) be worth doing = be worthy to be done = be worthy of being done

(3) advise/allow/permit/forbid doing sth   

advise/allow/permit/forbid sb to do sth----sb be advised/allowed/permitted/forbidden to to sth

(4) do nothing but do sth 只好做……

enjoy nothing but doing 只喜欢做……

want nothing but to do 只想做……

(5) prefer to do…rather than do… = prefer doing…to doing… = would rather do…than do…



    有一些分词短语可以作状语修饰整个句子,其形式上不受上下文的影响。常见的有generally/frankly/strictly speaking一般/坦白/严格说来,allowing for考虑到…… judging from/by…根据……来判断, considering…./taking…into consideration考虑到……, seeing…鉴于/由于……, supposing…假设/如果……, saving…除了……, assuming…假使……, given…考虑到/鉴于……, provided (that…)如果……, compared to/with………相比, according to…根据……

如:Judging from his accent, he is from the south.      Generally speaking, he is an honest man.